Oh look, It's Brain Surgery !

A medical related blog to this beautiful branch of the medicine world. In here you will find medical cases, usefull data, interactive and graphic explanations about diseases and procedures and much more. Welcome and enjoy!

radiologysigns:

Is this subdural or extradural blood? It isn’t quite crescent shaped and it isn’t quite lens shaped. So how can you tell? Well shape isn’t everything. This is subdural blood because it is crossing the lambdoid suture. Extradural hemorrhage is contained by the periosteum of the inner table of the skull and therefore does not cross cranial sutures. Handy little fact to remember.

good tip to remember

radiologysigns:

Is this subdural or extradural blood? It isn’t quite crescent shaped and it isn’t quite lens shaped. So how can you tell? Well shape isn’t everything. This is subdural blood because it is crossing the lambdoid suture. Extradural hemorrhage is contained by the periosteum of the inner table of the skull and therefore does not cross cranial sutures. Handy little fact to remember.

good tip to remember

radiologysigns:

Which of these is not subarachnoid blood? What’s happened instead?
ANSWER A: http://goo.gl/nRe7B0 ANSWER B: http://goo.gl/H4qEJz  ANSWER C: http://goo.gl/4MfhfN

radiologysigns:

Which of these is not subarachnoid blood? What’s happened instead?

ANSWER A: http://goo.gl/nRe7B0
ANSWER B: http://goo.gl/H4qEJz
ANSWER C: http://goo.gl/4MfhfN

47 year old male who suddenly has conscious compromise and neurological deficit. CT Brain scan shows right acute cerebellar bleeding with 4th ventricule drainage.

laurz5685 asked: Love your blog! Wish it had been around in 1998, @13 I was diagnosed w/ an ependymoma,had surgery&radiation.Fascinating to see the pics of surgery on here, always wondered what the cerebellum looked like! Keep up the good work!

thank you so much!

lexletssplit:

Can we talk about how emotional abuse is just as bad as physical abuse, and how you should just not abuse people because its fucked up either way?

(Source: pahpasquat, via queenoctopussy)

medicalschool:

Cerebral angiography is a procedure that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x-rays to see how blood flows through the brain. For a cerebral arteriogram, arterial access is usually obtained in the femoral artery in the groin. Once the catheter is inserted, the contrast dye is injected, and a series of X-ray pictures is made. These X-ray images show the arterial, venous, and capillary blood vessel structures and blood flow in the brain.
A cerebral arteriogram may be performed to detect abnormalities of the blood vessels within or leading to the brain. Such abnormalities include aneurysms, stenosis, arteriovenous malformation (a condition in which there is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins), thrombosis (a blood clot within a blood vessel), vasospasm (a spasm of the blood vessel causing an irregular narrowing of the vessel), or occlusion (complete obstruction of a blood vessel). Other conditions that cause a displacement of the brain’s blood vessels may be detected by a cerebral arteriogram. These conditions include tumors, edema (swelling), herniation (dislocation of the brain tissue, caused by pressure within the brain due to swelling, bleeding, or other reasons), increased intracranial pressure (ICP, or increased pressure within the brain), and hydrocephalus (fluid in the brain).

medicalschool:

Cerebral angiography is a procedure that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x-rays to see how blood flows through the brain. For a cerebral arteriogram, arterial access is usually obtained in the femoral artery in the groin. Once the catheter is inserted, the contrast dye is injected, and a series of X-ray pictures is made. These X-ray images show the arterial, venous, and capillary blood vessel structures and blood flow in the brain.

A cerebral arteriogram may be performed to detect abnormalities of the blood vessels within or leading to the brain. Such abnormalities include aneurysms, stenosis, arteriovenous malformation (a condition in which there is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins), thrombosis (a blood clot within a blood vessel), vasospasm (a spasm of the blood vessel causing an irregular narrowing of the vessel), or occlusion (complete obstruction of a blood vessel). Other conditions that cause a displacement of the brain’s blood vessels may be detected by a cerebral arteriogram. These conditions include tumors, edema (swelling), herniation (dislocation of the brain tissue, caused by pressure within the brain due to swelling, bleeding, or other reasons), increased intracranial pressure (ICP, or increased pressure within the brain), and hydrocephalus (fluid in the brain).

(Source: hopkinsmedicine.org, via starvingdoctor)

medicalschool:

Cerebral angiography is a procedure that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x-rays to see how blood flows through the brain. For a cerebral arteriogram, arterial access is usually obtained in the femoral artery in the groin. Once the catheter is inserted, the contrast dye is injected, and a series of X-ray pictures is made. These X-ray images show the arterial, venous, and capillary blood vessel structures and blood flow in the brain.
A cerebral arteriogram may be performed to detect abnormalities of the blood vessels within or leading to the brain. Such abnormalities include aneurysms, stenosis, arteriovenous malformation (a condition in which there is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins), thrombosis (a blood clot within a blood vessel), vasospasm (a spasm of the blood vessel causing an irregular narrowing of the vessel), or occlusion (complete obstruction of a blood vessel). Other conditions that cause a displacement of the brain’s blood vessels may be detected by a cerebral arteriogram. These conditions include tumors, edema (swelling), herniation (dislocation of the brain tissue, caused by pressure within the brain due to swelling, bleeding, or other reasons), increased intracranial pressure (ICP, or increased pressure within the brain), and hydrocephalus (fluid in the brain).

medicalschool:

Cerebral angiography is a procedure that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x-rays to see how blood flows through the brain. For a cerebral arteriogram, arterial access is usually obtained in the femoral artery in the groin. Once the catheter is inserted, the contrast dye is injected, and a series of X-ray pictures is made. These X-ray images show the arterial, venous, and capillary blood vessel structures and blood flow in the brain.

A cerebral arteriogram may be performed to detect abnormalities of the blood vessels within or leading to the brain. Such abnormalities include aneurysms, stenosis, arteriovenous malformation (a condition in which there is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins), thrombosis (a blood clot within a blood vessel), vasospasm (a spasm of the blood vessel causing an irregular narrowing of the vessel), or occlusion (complete obstruction of a blood vessel). Other conditions that cause a displacement of the brain’s blood vessels may be detected by a cerebral arteriogram. These conditions include tumors, edema (swelling), herniation (dislocation of the brain tissue, caused by pressure within the brain due to swelling, bleeding, or other reasons), increased intracranial pressure (ICP, or increased pressure within the brain), and hydrocephalus (fluid in the brain).

(Source: hopkinsmedicine.org, via zygoma)

radiopaedia:

Dandy-Walker malformation - cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and cystic dilatation of the 4th ventricle. VIEW CASE: http://goo.gl/uNQfT via our Instagram - Dr FRANK Gaillard, Dr Andrew DIXON, Dr Jeremy JONES, Dr HANI Alsalam, Dr BRUNO Di Muzio, Dr MATT Skalski

radiopaedia:

Dandy-Walker malformation - cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and cystic dilatation of the 4th ventricle. VIEW CASE: http://goo.gl/uNQfT

via our Instagram - Dr FRANK Gaillard, Dr Andrew DIXON, Dr Jeremy JONES, Dr HANI Alsalam, Dr BRUNO Di Muzio, Dr MATT Skalski

(via fuckyeahnarcotics)

fuckyeahnarcotics:

Based on the MRI, the patient was diagnosed with obstructive hydrocephalus, the magnetic resonance imaging scans, show enlargement of the third and lateral ventricles secondary to multiple posterior fossa metastases, which are narrowing the cerebral aqueduct, the fourth ventricle, and the fourth ventricular outflow tract, supratentorial metastasis is also noted, an MRI of the brain also shows multiple metastases, including a posterior fossa lesion causing obstructive hydrocephalus 

ucsdhealthsciences:

An axial or horizontal magnetic resonance image of a glioblastoma multiforme brain tumor in a human patient. Image courtesy of RadioGraphics. 
Killing killer brain tumors
Glioblastoma multiforme are the most common and lethal of brain tumors in adults. The median survival time after diagnosis is just 12 to 14 months. The condition is almost invariably fatal.
Compounding their deadliness, GBMs tend to become quickly resistant to current drug treatments. In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research at the University of California, San Diego say they may know why, describing a new molecular pathway that might eventually lead to more effective GBM therapies.
The study, headed Paul Mischel, MD, a professor in the department of pathology in UC San Diego’s School of Medicine, looked at a signaling pathway called the mammalian target of rapamycin or mTOR and at a multipurpose gene-encoded protein called promyleocytic leukemia or PML.
The work builds upon earlier research suggesting that the best way to kill GBM tumors is to block the signaling pathways that preserve and promote their survival.
MTOR is “hyperactivated” in close to 90 percent of glioblastomas and plays a critical role in regulating tumor growth and survival. It is considered to be a major therapeutic target. However, PML causes resistance to drugs designed to inhibit mTOR signaling. When glioblastoma patients are treated with mTOR-inhibitory drugs, PML levels rise and drug resistance grows, eventually rendering the drugs useless.
So the researchers went looking for something that suppresses or reduces PML levels, which would leave tumors more vulnerable to mTOR inhibitor drugs. They believe they’ve found it in arsenic trioxide, a molecule whose therapeutic use dates back to traditional Chinese medicine. In low doses, arsenic trioxide has been found to degrade the PML protein in leukemia patients. In their tests, the UC San Diego scientists discovered that it did the same in mice with brain tumors, reversing resistance to mTOR inhibitory drugs so that there was massive cancer cell death and significant tumor shrinkage, with no ill side effects.
Mischel and colleagues are now planning to test the therapy in people. You can read more about their research here.

ucsdhealthsciences:

An axial or horizontal magnetic resonance image of a glioblastoma multiforme brain tumor in a human patient. Image courtesy of RadioGraphics.

Killing killer brain tumors

Glioblastoma multiforme are the most common and lethal of brain tumors in adults. The median survival time after diagnosis is just 12 to 14 months. The condition is almost invariably fatal.

Compounding their deadliness, GBMs tend to become quickly resistant to current drug treatments. In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research at the University of California, San Diego say they may know why, describing a new molecular pathway that might eventually lead to more effective GBM therapies.

The study, headed Paul Mischel, MD, a professor in the department of pathology in UC San Diego’s School of Medicine, looked at a signaling pathway called the mammalian target of rapamycin or mTOR and at a multipurpose gene-encoded protein called promyleocytic leukemia or PML.

The work builds upon earlier research suggesting that the best way to kill GBM tumors is to block the signaling pathways that preserve and promote their survival.

MTOR is “hyperactivated” in close to 90 percent of glioblastomas and plays a critical role in regulating tumor growth and survival. It is considered to be a major therapeutic target. However, PML causes resistance to drugs designed to inhibit mTOR signaling. When glioblastoma patients are treated with mTOR-inhibitory drugs, PML levels rise and drug resistance grows, eventually rendering the drugs useless.

So the researchers went looking for something that suppresses or reduces PML levels, which would leave tumors more vulnerable to mTOR inhibitor drugs. They believe they’ve found it in arsenic trioxide, a molecule whose therapeutic use dates back to traditional Chinese medicine. In low doses, arsenic trioxide has been found to degrade the PML protein in leukemia patients. In their tests, the UC San Diego scientists discovered that it did the same in mice with brain tumors, reversing resistance to mTOR inhibitory drugs so that there was massive cancer cell death and significant tumor shrinkage, with no ill side effects.

Mischel and colleagues are now planning to test the therapy in people. You can read more about their research here.

(via fuckyeahnarcotics)